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Yes, if it is severe enough. According to the revised guidelines, issued in 2012, from the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, astigmatism can be a risk factor for amblyopia, the leading cause of vision loss among children, depending on the severity of the astigmatism and the age of the child. AAPOS guidelines recommend that any vision screening with a photoscreener or other instrument should screen for astigmatism greater than 2 diopters if the child is between the ages of 12 months and 48 months, and greater than 1.5 diopters if the child is older than 48 months. A diopter is a measure of the power of the lens that would be needed to correct a child’s vision.